Leather panels are typically tanned to a natural brown color, which is usually required in professional leagues and collegiate play. At least one manufacturer uses leather that has been tanned to provide a “tacky” grip in dry or wet conditions. Historically, white footballs have been used in games played at night so that the ball can be seen more easily; however, improved artificial lighting conditions have made this no longer necessary. At most levels of play (but not, notably, the NFL), white stripes are painted on each end of the ball, halfway around the circumference, to improve nighttime visibility and also to differentiate the college football from the pro football. However, the NFL once explored the usage of white striped footballs once – in Super Bowl VIII.
In the mid 19th century, various traditional football games, referred to collectively as caid, remained popular in Ireland, especially in County Kerry. One observer, Father W. Ferris, described two main forms of caid during this period: the “field game” in which the object was to put the ball through arch like goals, formed from the boughs of two trees; and the epic “cross country game” which took up most of the daylight hours of a Sunday on which it was played, and was won by one team taking the ball across a parish boundary. “Wrestling”, “holding” opposing players, and carrying the ball were all allowed.
At the fifth meeting it was proposed that these two rules be removed. Most of the delegates supported this, but F. M. Campbell, the representative from Blackheath and the first FA treasurer, objected. He said: “hacking is the true football”. However, the motion to ban running with the ball in hand and hacking was carried and Blackheath withdrew from the FA. After the final meeting on 8 December, the FA published the “Laws of Football”, the first comprehensive set of rules for the game later known as Association Football. The term “soccer”, in use since the late 19th century, derives from an Oxford University abbreviation of “Association”.
Nowadays, there are different kinds of soccer shoes used by the football players according to different types of surface, kind of sport and the player’s position in the game. The shoes are classified by several standard such as the cuts of boot and particularly stud arrangements. For example, as for the hard fields, known as Firm Ground, the players wear the shoes with plastic studs; and for the well grass or soft field, they wear another sort of shoes with stud made of metal or rubber. (It is easy to distinguish different shoes by their names; eg. FG, SF, AG, etc.) There is another type of cleats named indoor cleats used only for the sporting held indoor.
By the late 1850s, many football clubs had been formed throughout the English speaking world, to play various codes of football. Sheffield Football Club, founded in 1857 in the English city of Sheffield by Nathaniel Creswick and William Prest, was later recognised as the world’s oldest club playing association football. However, the club initially played its own code of football: the Sheffield rules. The code was largely independent of the public school rules, the most significant difference being the lack of an offside rule.
Public schools’ dominance of sports in the UK began to wane after the Factory Act of 1850, which significantly increased the recreation time available to working class children. Before 1850, many British children had to work six days a week, for more than twelve hours a day. From 1850, they could not work before 660;a.m. (760;a.m. in winter) or after 660;p.m. on weekdays (760;p.m. in winter); on Saturdays they had to cease work at 260;p.m. These changes mean that working class children had more time for games, including various forms of football.
The first FA rules still contained elements that are no longer part of association football, but which are still recognisable in other games (such as Australian football and rugby football): for instance, a player could make a fair catch and claim a mark, which entitled him to a free kick; and if a player touched the ball behind the opponents’ goal line, his side was entitled to a free kick at goal, from 1560;yards (1560;metres) in front of the goal line.
In Canada, the first documented football match was a practice game played on November 9, 1861, at University College, University of Toronto (approximately 400 yards west of Queen’s Park). One of the participants in the game involving University of Toronto students was (Sir) William Mulock, later Chancellor of the school. In 1864, at Trinity College, Toronto, F. Barlow Cumberland, Frederick A. Bethune, and Christopher Gwynn, one of the founders of Milton, Massachusetts, devised rules based on rugby football. A “running game”, resembling rugby football, was then taken up by the Montreal Football Club in Canada in 186